Your air conditioner performs a lot of functions. It removes some of the humidity from the room, traps some of the room’s airborne particles, and it cools the room down to a comfortable temperature. There are two coils inside it that have refrigerant fluid inside them that is always flowing. The condenser is the coil that is outside of the room being cooled.
The evaporator is the coil that is in that room. The evaporator is kept at a temperature that is lower than that in the room. The condenser is hotter than the air around it.
The refrigerant fluid that runs through the coil in the room will absorb some of the heat that is inside the room. It then takes that heat to the coil that is outside the room. There is a part called the compressor that is a part of this system. It changes the pressure of the fluid inside the system so that the hot temperatures run through the coil and are ejected through the condenser. There is also a fan attached to the condenser that makes the ejection of heat easier. As long as the system is working, it will keep cooling the temperature until it gets to the temperature you have set it on.